Review Article

Intravenous anaesthesia in goats: A review

T. Brighton Dzikiti
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association | Vol 84, No 1 | a499 | DOI: | © 2013 T. Brighton Dzikiti | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 28 June 2012 | Published: 13 February 2013

About the author(s)

T. Brighton Dzikiti, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort campus, South Africa

Share this article

Bookmark and Share


Intravenous anaesthesia is gradually becoming popular in veterinary practice. Traditionally, general anaesthesia is induced with intravenous drugs and then maintained with inhalation agents. Inhalation anaesthetic agents cause more significant dose-dependent cardiorespiratory depression than intravenous anaesthetic drugs, creating a need to use less of the inhalation anaesthetic agents for maintenance of general anaesthesia by supplementing with intravenous anaesthesia drugs. Better still, if anaesthesia is maintained completely with intravenous anaesthetic drugs, autonomic functions remain more stable intra-operatively. Patient recovery from anaesthesia is smoother and there is less pollution of the working environment than happens with inhalation anaesthetic agents. Recently, a number of drugs with profiles (pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic) suitable for prolonged intravenous anaesthesia have been studied, mostly in humans and, to a certain extent, in dogs and horses. There is currently very little scientific information on total intravenous anaesthesia in goats, although, in the past few years, some scholarly scientific articles on drugs suitable for partial intravenous anaesthesia in goats have been published. This review article explored the information available on drugs that have been assessed for partial intravenous anaesthesia in goats, with the aim of promoting incorporation of these drugs into total intravenous anaesthesia protocols in clinical practice. That way, balanced anaesthesia, a technique in which drugs are included in anaesthetic protocols for specific desired effects (hypnosis, analgesia, muscle relaxation, autonomic stabilisation) may be utilised in improving the welfare of goats undergoing general anaesthesia.


general anaesthesia; goat; infusion; intravenous anaesthesia; profile (pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic); propofol


Total abstract views: 4022
Total article views: 24118

Crossref Citations

No related citations found.