Original Research

Serum biochemical and haematological reference intervals for water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) heifers

Mahmoud R. Abd Ellah, Maha I. Hamed, Derar R. Ibrahim, Hassan Z. Rateb
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association | Vol 85, No 1 | a962 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/jsava.v85i1.962 | © 2014 Mahmoud R. Abd Ellah, Maha I. Hamed, Derar R. Ibrahim, Hassan Z. Rateb | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 22 November 2012 | Published: 25 February 2014

About the author(s)

Mahmoud R. Abd Ellah, Department of Animal Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt
Maha I. Hamed, Department of Animal Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt
Derar R. Ibrahim, Department of Theriogenology, Assiut University, Egypt
Hassan Z. Rateb, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Assiut University, Egypt

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Based on a review of the literature, reference intervals for water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) serum biochemistry and haematology have not previously been published. The current study was done to establish reference intervals for water buffalo heifers. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry stated that at least 120 values are necessary to obtain reliable estimates for reference intervals. A total number of 127 clinically healthy buffalo heifers (1–2 years old) were included in the study. Animals were examined at buffalo farms that belong to Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Three types of samples were collected: serum samples for biochemical analysis, whole blood samples for haematological analysis and faecal samples for parasitological examination. Animals that fitted the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Biochemical analysis included serum total proteins, albumin, total globulins, alpha, beta and gamma globulin levels, and aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activity. In addition to the above, serum creatinine, urea, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, copper, zinc, iron, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, glucose levels and 20 haematological variables were measured. The 95.0% reference intervals were calculated by removing the upper and lower 2.5% of the interval for each serum biochemical constituent to give the 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles. Confidence intervals were calculated for each reference limit. Reference intervals from the current study were compared with established values for cows. The current study is as far as could be determined the first that establishes reference intervals for the serum biochemical and haematological parameters in water buffalo heifers.


Serum; hematology; buffalo; heifers; reference values


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