Short Communication

An epidemiological survey demonstrating decline in reproductive efficiency with age and non-seasonality of reproductive parameters in German shepherd bitches in Kenya

H.M. Mutembei, E.R. Mutiga, V.T. Tsuma
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association | Vol 73, No 1 | a546 | DOI: | © 2002 H.M. Mutembei, E.R. Mutiga, V.T. Tsuma | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 05 July 2002 | Published: 05 July 2002

About the author(s)

H.M. Mutembei,
E.R. Mutiga,
V.T. Tsuma,

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An epidemiological survey undertaken in Kenya indicated that 2 previously well-established factors, namely decline in reproductive efficiency with age, and non-seasonality of canine reproductive parameters, hold true for German shepherd (GSD) bitches in Kenya. Data collection formswere distributed to randomly selected GSDbreeders and information so obtained was verified using East African Kennel Club records. Whelping was recorded throughout the year. The litter size varied from 1 to 14 pups per litter with a mean of 6.3 ±0.4 SD puppies. Records of 567 whelpings and 3592 puppies were studied. The mean monthly whelping rate was 47.3 ±7.2. There was no significant difference in the mean litter size by month (P < 0.05).


Epidemiological Survey; GSD Bitches; Kenya; Litter Size; Month; Parity


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