Case Report

Treatment and control of an outbreak of Salmonellosis in hatchling Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus Niloticus)

K. D.A. Huchzermeyer
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association | Vol 62, No 1 | a1579 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/jsava.v62i1.1579 | © 2020 K.D.A. Huchzermeyer | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 31 August 2017 | Published: 30 March 1991

About the author(s)

K. D.A. Huchzermeyer, Lydenburg Veterinary Clinic, Lydenburg, South Africa

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Abstract

The therapeutic and managemental steps taken to bring a severe outbreak of salmonellosis in Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) under control are described. All the crocodiles were initially given intramuscular injections with kanamycin on alternating days for 8 d, coupled with adjustment of the ambient temperature to 29 °C. The holding pens were cleaned and disinfected with 2% formalin at the onset of treatment. Daily scrubbing and disinfection was continued throughout the treatment period. Severely affected crocodiles were separated and force-fed a liquid diet. All crocodiles were vaccinated with an inactivated calf paratyphoid vaccine 10 d after the onset of treatment and again one month later. The initial treatment was followed by a 30-week period of in-feed medication with oxytetracycline. Response to the initial treatment was dramatic, although some mortalities still occurred in the force-fed group for one month. The following year's hatchlings were fed heat-treated meat from first feeding onwards to avoid the possibility of introducing Salmonella spp. via the feed.

Keywords

Crocodiles; Crocodylus niloticus; Salmonella spp.; control; disinfection; temperature

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Crossref Citations

1. Salmonella in reptiles
Mark A. Mitchell, Simon M. Shane
Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine  vol: 10  issue: 1  first page: 25  year: 2001  
doi: 10.1053/saep.2001.19798